8. Notes

n1 Marsha Saxton, “Preface to the Special Issue on Women with Disabilities: Reproduction and Motherhood,” Sexuality and Disability, Vol. 12, No.2, 1994 (112)
n2 Maria L. LaGanga, “Severely disabled, is she still a mom?” Los Angeles Times, April 11, 2010 http://www.latimes.com/news/local/la-me-abbie11-2010apr11,0,7928553.story
n3 Karen P. DePauw, “‘Space: The Final Frontier’: The Invisibility of Disability on the Landscape of Women Studies” Frontiers 17, no. 3 (1996): 20.
n4 Jenny Morris, “Feminism and Disability” Feminist Review 43 (1993): 57.
n5 DePauw, 19-20.
n6 Morris, “Feminism and Disability,” 57.
n7 Renee F. Lyons and L. Darlene Meade, “Mothers with Chronic Illness” Canadian Woman Studies 13, no. 4 (1993): 35.
n8 See Sherry L. Peters, “Having a Disability ‘Sometimes’” Canadian Woman Studies 13, no. 4 (1993): 26-27, Sharon Dale Stone, “Must Disability Always be Visible? The Meaning of Disability for Women” Canadian Woman Studies 13, no. 4, (1993): 11-13, Jane Field, “Coming Out of two Closets” Canadian Woman Studies 13, no. 4 (1993): 18-19, and Michelle McCarthy Sexuality and Women with Learning Disabilities (London: Jessica Kingsley, 1999) for a lengthy treatment of the intersection of sexuality, gender and severe cognitive disability.
n9 Peters, 27.
n10 Kate Lindemann, “Persons with Adult-Onset Head Injury: A Crucial Resource for Feminist Philosophers” Hypatia 16, no. 4 (2001): 106.
n11 Rosemarie Garland-Thomson, “Re-Shaping, Re-Thinking, Re-Defining: Feminist Disability Studies,” Waxman Fiduccia Papers on Women and Girls with Disabilities, Center for Women Policy Studies, http://www.centerwomenpolicy.org/pdfs/dis2.pdf (accessed December 6, 2009), 5.
n12 Licia Carlson, “Cognitive Ableism and Disability Studies: Feminist Reflections on the History of Mental Retardation” Hypatia 16, no. 4 (2001): 140.
n13 Rosemarie Garland-Thomson, “Re-Shaping, Re-Thinking, Re-Defining: Feminist Disability Studies,” 11. See also Peter Byrne, Philosophical and Ethical Problems in Mental Handicap (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2000).
n14 Saxton (111), and M. Aunos, G. Goupil, M. Feldman, “Mothers with Intellectual Disabilities Who Do or Do Not Have Custody of Their Children,” Journal of Developmental Disabilities, 10 (2), 2003 (65).
n15 Nicole Crawford, “Parenting with a disability: the last frontier,” Monitor, vol. 34, No. 5  < http://www.apa.org/monitor/may03/challenges.aspx&gt;
n16 S. Parish, S. Magaña, S. Cassiman, “It’s Just That Much Harder: Multilayered Hardship Experiences of Low-Income Mothers With Disabilities,” Affilia: Journal of Women and Social Work, Vol. 23, No. 1, 2008 (51).
n17 Adrienne Asch, quoted in “Parenting with a disability: the last frontier.”
n18 Deborah Kent, “Beyond Expectations: Being Blind and Becoming a Mother,” Sexuality and Disability, vol. 20, No. 1, 2002 (86).
n19 M. Kocher, “Mothers with Disabilities,” Sexuality and Disability, Vol. 12, No. 2, 1994 (130).
n20 See C. Malacrida, “Negotiating the Dependency/Nurturance Tightrope: Dilemmas of Motherhood and Disability,” CRSA/RCSA, Vol. 44, No. 4, 2007, for a lengthy discussion of these issues.
n21 P. Quinn and S. Wigal, “Perceptions of Girls and ADHD: Results from a National Survey,” Medscape General Medicine Vol. 6, No. 2, 2004, retrieved from The Center: A Resource for Women and Girls with ADHD on April 12, 2010 < http://www.ncgiadd.org/research/index.html&gt;
n22 Russell A. Barkley, Kevin R. Murphy, and Mariellen Fischer, ADHD in Adults: What the Science Says (New York: Guilford Press, 2008), 456.
n23 Julie Rucklidge and Bonnie Kaplan, “The Effects of Late Diagnosis upon Women with AD/HD: Lost Loves and the Power of Understanding” in Gender Issues and ADHD: Research Diagnosis and Treatment, eds. Patricia O. Quinn and Kathleen G. Nadeau, 139 (Silver Spring, MD: Advantage Books, 2002).
n24 Kate Kelly and Peggy Ramundo, introduction to Women with Attention Deficit Disorder: Embrace your Differences and Transform your Life, 10th Anniversary Edition, by Sari Solden (Nevada City, CA: Underwood Books, 2005), xvii-xviii.
n25 Lynn Weiss, Attention Deficit Disorder in Adults: A Different Way of Thinking, 4th ed., (Lanham, MD: Taylor Trade Publishing, 2005), 39-44.
n26 Kathleen G. Nadeau and Patricia O. Quinn, “An Unexamined Gender Bias” in Gender Issues and AD/HD: Research, Diagnosis and Treatment, eds. Patricia O. Quinn and Kathleen G. Nadeau, 2-22 (Silver Spring, MD: Advantage Books, 2002).
n27 Patricia O. Quinn, “Hormonal Influences” in Understanding Women with AD/HD, eds. Kathleen G. Nadeau and Patricia O. Quinn, 86-102 (Washington, D.C.: Advantage Books, 2002).
n28 Sari Solden, Women with Attention Deficit Disorder, (Nevada City, Ca: Underwood Books, 2005) 56.
n29 Jonathan Gershon, “An Overview of Research” in Gender Issues and AD/HD: Research, Diagnosis and Treatment, eds. Patricia O. Quinn and Kathleen G. Nadeau, 30 (Silver Spring, MD: Advantage Books, 2002).
n30 T. Banks, J. Ninowski, E. Mash, D. Semple, “Parenting Behaviors and Cognitions in a Community Sample of Mothers with and without Symptoms of Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder,” Journal of Child and Family Studies, Vol. 17, 2008 (29).
n31 J. Fleming and L. Levy, “Addressing Disordered Eating Patterns in Women with ADHD,” adapted from a chapter by the same authors in P. Quinn and K. Nadeau Gender Issues and ADHD.
n32 María Lugones, “Playfulness, ‘World’-Traveling, and Loving Perception,” in Women, Knowledge and Reality: Explorations in Feminist Philosophy, 2nd edition, ed. M. Pearsall (New York: Routledge, 1996)
n33 Saxton, 113.
n34 S. Fitzmaurice, “A Mother’s Narrative: Reflections on Life with Disability,” Sexuality and Disability, Vol. 20, No. 2, 2002 (123).
n35 C. Adamec, moms with ADD: A Self-Help Manual, (Lanham, MD: Taylor Trade Publishing, 2000).

  1. Thanks for this paper.

    Two comments:

    1.The examples of women denied access to their children are horrific. Would we do the same to a father returning from Afghanistan?

    2. One of the things I continue to find puzzling is that some needs are called disabilities but others are not. Example: myopia is not usually considered a disability unless it is extreme; same with hearing loss [most 18 year olds have hearing loss when compared with peers of 20 years ago.

    Somehow I think that if we ‘counted’ all disabilities, we would find that most of the population is disabled. Itis just a question of degree. Maybe practice of self recognition [should we do this in class or at conferences….how many wear contacts or glasses, how many have pidgin toes or….] Maybe if we began to work at recognizing the widespread occurrence of disability we would find it more difficult to isolate and punish those with more unusual or severe disabilities?

    But this means that we all begin to be willing to recognize that we are less than perfect…..just as we need to recognize that we ALL are recipients of care [by cafeteria workers, mechanics, those who set up this conference so we could attend etc.

    Perhaps disability studies are made more difficult [and isolated as a ‘special field in philosophy’] just because we, are unwilling to face the fact that we are not perfect, that we, too, receive care every day etc.

    For some reason I can not understand why we do not ‘see’ such things….

    • Deb Waterhouse-Watson
    • April 16th, 2010

    I think it’s probably because we don’t want to see them! It’s much more comfortable to believe that there is an ‘other’ or group of ‘others’ out there, who are somehow less capable of performing certain tasks than we (think we)are.

    The author’s point about parents with disabilities possessing skills that may make them better parents certainly rings true – my parents were friends with a woman who was blind from birth, who had three children, two of whom were also blind. She had the most phenomenal memory, sense of spatial awareness and hearing, far superior to her sighted friends, all of which are very useful parenting skills!

    • Maeve O’Donovan
    • April 18th, 2010

    Thank you both for reading and responding to my paper. I agree that the under-recognition of our need for, and dependence on others is at the root of much marginalizing behavior. I also feel, strongly, that it is important to provide legal protections for persons who need, not just prefer, to learn, work and play in ways other than the “normal” conditions provide. Like both of you, I hope that there comes a day when teachers, employers, building designers, technology producers, etc., not only appreciate the need to be more inclusive in their practices but ARE more inclusive in their practices. My hope is that by arguing for and identifying advantagces of certain “disabilities” this day will come sooner rather than later.

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